Eng. Vittorio Cianci and his Staff are on hand to answer all your questions sent via email to the addresses indicated below.
(Clear answers to complex problems)
• Questions regarding technical problems related to the materials, defectiveness, toxicity, complaints, advance info on materials and care problems, textile chemistry applied to cleaning
• Questions concerning disputes
• General information
• Textile care and industrial chemistry issues affecting washing
THE EXPERT’S ANSWER
Questions should be emailed to firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com. The most interesting questions and related answer will be published
ANSWERS TO THE QUESTIONS RECEIVED
How do you label a garment made of two different fabrics combined?
If the two parts have the same composition, for example 100% polyester, indicate 100% polyester; if the two parts are of different composition, such as if one side is 100% polyester and the other 100% cotton, the two parts must be listed separately. In both cases no reference should be made to the resin bonding film applied between the two parts.
What is the difference between metal thread and metalized thread?
Metal thread (included in the 49 fibers referenced by the regulatory standard), is made of 100% metal, such as steel, and generally woven into the fabric; metalized thread (also included in the 49 fibers referenced by the regulatory standard) such as Lurex for example, is made as follows: a very thin sheet of nylon and polyester is coated with metal powders of different colors (gold, silver etc.) by electroplating first and then cut into thin strips less than 1 mm wide, which are called laminates; often these quite fragile laminates are re-wound with two strands of nylon. The regulatory standard allows the label to state it is 100% metalized fiber or separately list the composition of the sheet (polyester or nylon) and the composition of the laminate winding thread indicating the exact percentage of the two components which may be for example: 80% polyester (sheet composition) + 20% nylon (composition of the thread wound over the laminate).
How should polypropylene fabrics be used and cared for?
The only caution to observe, given the low melt point, is the temperature of the iron: iron it at low temperature with a moist cloth in between.
Can the electrostatic charge of silk fabrics be reduced during the wash?
When silk is overly dry, it behaves like a synthetic fiber; it builds up static electricity with unpleasant consequences such as electrical discharges and clinging to the body, which affects wearability.
It can be reduced in two ways:
• by hanging the garment in a room equipped with a running humidifier for about a week.
• by dry-cleaning it with hydrocarbons and applying special static-dissipating resins (which do not affect the feel or look of the fabric) to the surface of the garment.
Recommendations for the use of KVL solventR
Mr. Grasselli, owner of 3Più laundry, answers the question as follows:
1) always warm up the tub for the first wash.
2) the wash settings must always foresee one or more pre-cleaning cycles with specific anti-bacterial additives to keep bacterial colonies from forming followed by distillation.
3) remove all residue from the previous cycle, as it may pollute the next load; pay attention to the water in the bath, foam rises.
4) as final centrifugation rises above 900 rpm the solvent, due to its low specific weight, tends to remain trapped between the basket and the tub, hence causing stains once the drying cycle starts in the presence of excess solvent, which is why it is necessary to execute 2 consecutive centrifugation cycles that rearrange the distribution of solvent in the garments and completely remove all solvent residue from the garments.
5) use the temperature recommended by the manufacturer; uncondensed solvent may recirculate and be deposited on the garments, causing stains. KVL is a paraffin-based solvent and therefore oily.
A dry cleaning machine that uses ISOPARAFFIN or SILICONE solvent has specific characteristics that differ from those of perc.
Distillation must occur under vacuum in order to reach the boiling point (the boiling point is lower under vacuum).
The passage of the distillate from the condenser to the separator must occur without loss of pressure in the still. It is important for the head of the distillate, which contains pollutants, be separated from the rest of the distillate; the head of the distillate will be used in the following pre-wash.
Flammability and explosion hazards are nil. Fire triangulation is next to impossible within the machine due to the simple reason that fire triangulation never takes place.
The forming of a fire triangle requires a flammable agent (KVL) concentrated enough to form an oxygen combustible mix as well as a source of ignition the fire starts when the triangle is complete, but if one component is missing, nothing happens.
At the beginning of the drying cycle the concentration of the flammable agent (solvent) is too high to produce an explosive mix and oxygen is too low; at the end of the drying cycle the concentration of the flammable agent is too low and that of oxygen too high; there could be an intermediate phase with the right concentration of explosive mix, but it would require an ignition source.
Questions received in the month of January
What is the meaning of care labels applied to down comforters and jackets? The filling was cleaned and sterilized in compliance with Ministerial Decree No. 10.11.76 and subjected to sanitary and hygienic testing pursuant to the Ministry of Health decree of 14.10.81 and its subsequent amendment of 6 August 1982
How is sterilization tested and by whom?
During the industrial washing of table linens and bed sheets, how can the washing cycle be checked (products, concentrations, conditions) to ensure their proper cleaning and longevity over multiple long washing cycles without ruining the material?
What are the risks of damage incurred by washing and stain removal?
Which are the differences between perc and hydrocarbon and what are they best used for?